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We suggest that this tradition has generated a distanced, even voyeuristic, perspective on the letters, treating them as windows onto biographical scenes of emotional, and sometimes erotic, intimacy and expression. We criticise some examples of this tendency in recent Winckelmann scholarship, explore the often adventitious steps by which it arose, and, using examples of particular letters, suggest some alternative interpretations.
Sichtermann cites a letter of Rehm to the publisher De Gruyter, undated but presumably written in the late s, in which he withdrew from participation in the Gesamtausgabe planned since the s. We also now have the Kritische Gesamtausgabein progress under the auspices of the Mainz Akademie der Wissenschaften. It was the letters he had spent much of the three decades collecting and editing, in preparation of the four-volume critical edition that is still standard today.
Perhaps Rehm felt that this work merited no comment, for it was in tune with both dominant modes of humanities research and currents of interest in Winckelmann in particular over the century. More obviously, he was following in the footsteps of Carl Justi, whose monumental Winckelmann biography of —72 rested on years of patient archival research and examination of unpublished material, including letters, held in libraries across Europe and in the hands of private collectors.
This mode of reading, which interprets personal correspondence as the expression or reflection of a Women looking sex Winkelman — or at least a consistently developing — pre-textual personality, finds an echo in a more recent body of criticism on Winckelmann which appears at first very different.
In these readings, the correspondence is seen as the private, and thus uncensored, expression of a homosexual subjectivity that is striving to recognize itself as such. Such interpretations begin in the nineteenth century, arguably with Goethe, 10 but are particularly prominent in a of studies since the s, a decade that saw the institutionalization of LGBT studies and the beginnings of queer theory.
It may seem surprising that such interpretative strategies have persisted among scholars whose work proceeds from this context. This may be partly a matter of disciplinary formation, in that within art history, psychoanalysis has a longer history and greater prominence than queer theory as an interpretative framework.
Its persistence in literary studies is perhaps explicable by the authority of the interpretative tradition that stems from Goethe, as well as the dominance of a particular figuration of the homoerotic, operative from until fairly recently, that lends itself to construal in terms of coded outer revelations and inner meanings.
Such readings of Winckelmann conform to the structure of the closet. Winckelmann, who was drilled in the art of epistolary composition at his Latin School and composed his personal correspondence in Latin, French, German, and Italian, chose the format of the open letter Sendschreiben for shorter antiquarian works of both his Dresden and Roman periods. There is ample evidence from the correspondence of Winckelmann and his contemporaries for those sociable modes of reading out loud current in the mid-eighteenth century, and clues that certain letters, such as those Winckelmann sent to Johann Georg Wille and Christian Ludwig von Hagedorn in WB, 1,containing early drafts of his description of the Apollo Belvedere, circulated in manuscript among northern European connoisseurs.
Finally, as the letters discussed below demonstrate, Winckelmann was an avid consumer of many different kinds of epistolary literature fashionable in his age. The eighteenth century offered many models, both ancient Women looking sex Winkelman modern, for elegant epistolary composition, and letter-writing manuals often consisted in large part of collections of model letters.
Supplementing these were corpora of modern letters, published and consumed as literature.
Although Winckelmann appears to have read little German literature after his departure for Rome inthe same cannot be said for French and British literature. His letters and manuscript notes attest to his consumption of authors of taste, including writers of epistolary literature, such as Women looking sex Winkelman, Hume, Pope, Richardson, Voltaire, the Encyclopaedists, and Cleland.
Two further preliminary points must be made before we present some individual letters. Other Winckelmann letters offer us ificantly different erotic voices. Our final introductory point moves back to Goethe. FA, 1, 19, p. FA, i, 19, pp. Although Ps.
A letter should be a little more formal than a dialogue, since the one imitates spontaneous discussion, while the other is written and sent as a gift Ps. But these are not just love letters written in Latin, French, and German; they are composed in accordance with certain literary and rhetorical conventions, about which the letters appear sometimes quite self-conscious. A letter of 16 February WB, 1, 22written in Latin, mutates surprisingly from a love letter into an exhortation to prose composition.
Insufficient attention has, however, been paid to the history of this topos in a celebrated genre of early modern literary production and emulation.
He died in Perugia in Women looking sex Winkelman man of broad intellectual interests, Bianconi was well connected in antiquarian circles. In Rome he founded two further influential periodicals, the Efemeridi letterarie —98 and the Antologia romana —98both committed to the promotion of neoclassical taste in Rome.
He also furnished new connections for Winckelmann, even arranging his first papal audience Jacobs, pp. There he was adopted as heir by his uncle, Philipp von Stosch, a renowned diplomat and connoisseur with whom Winckelmann was, around the same time, embarking upon a commerce de lettres in hope of patronage.
In a prosopographic work of the s, the Italian historian Carlo Denina gave a suggestive portrait of Muzell-Stosch. It is that he draws a distinction between them in terms of style. These Winckelmann himself kept in a strictly separate category from his more highly invested male friendships. I am reduced to taking enemas and had to avail myself of one again this morning.
Thus have I paid the genius of Florence the tribute of my virginity. Potts is followed by Louis A. Ruprecht Jr. I bent my head and submitted to an act of b[uggery]. Winckelmann characterizes himself as on the brink of a Platonic code for paederastic? These, plus the general reputation of Florence as a sodomitical city support a sexual interpretation Potts, p.
I do not look [upon her] with such an indifferent eye as you imagine, but I am unable to limit my feelings of approbation to the beauty of the opposite sex alone. The eye, taste, and passions of the connoisseur should not be partial and narrow-sighted, but should extend to wherever they find beauty. Ultimately, however, it is the masculine that wins out in this battle of the sexes.
This article has aimed to demonstrate that Winckelmann used a variety of erotic personae and discourses in his personal correspondence and that paying attention to its social, cultural, and literary-rhetorical contexts is necessary in order to appreciate the correspondence as a demonstration of literary art. Winckelmann was educated in the art of epistolary composition and deploys classical models and rhetorical examples in his familiar correspondence.
In the principal examples discussed, the correspondence addressed to Lamprecht and to Bianconi, we hear very different erotic voices, both of which are indebted to pre-existing literary-rhetorical conventions. All translations by the authors. Jahrhunderted. Rishel London: Merrell,pp. It could, however, also refer to a seafood stew or pasta sauce eaten largely in the Adriatic region. We suggest that Winckelmann is knowingly playing on the potential ambiguity afforded by the similarity between these words. See WB, 1, WB, 1, and 3, a are translated in their entirety so far as we know, for the first time into Englishwhile we give the beginning section of 2, The situation is worsened in many cases by the loss of the original manuscripts, either in the eighteenth century or in subsequent acts or periods of destruction for example the major damage during World War II to the holdings of the Preussische Staatsbibliothek, where a ificant of Winckelmann letters, including the first and third translated below, were held.
We have indicated in footnotes some places where we made translation choices which may seem controversial, or where we adopted one of a of possible readings. In preparing these translations we have benefited from the generosity of Professor Nicoletta Momigliano of the University of Bristol and Professor Ingrid Rowland of the University of Notre Dame, each of whom advised us on numerous cruces of interpretation. Any errors that remain are entirely our responsibility. I cannot but be concerned by your long silence, although I can imagine various reasons for it, 41 and being most certain of your patronage I accept it in good faith: showing my limited capacities in the face of your much revered s of instruction and hoping for nothing but to be useful to you in some way.
I am just about to finish my laborious work, which until now has Women looking sex Winkelman allowed me to draw breath, and has held me back from all social intercourse. When printed it will be a large octavo volume. Over the last six months, draining my last energies, I have completed a task that all the same astounds me. I feel the effect of it, however, and am obliged to take a very strict abstinence from food dictated by an unsettled stomach.
This indisposition has made me feel that Buzara 44 is no laughing matter, not at all! It claims a certain right 45 over those who breathe the Tuscan air. Having tempted me at first with some itching below, and finding myself floating on the surface of Platonism and walking on the brink of heresy, but never inclined either 46 to Part A… nor P…, this — whether it was this influence or some other occult power — finally came to bend my head and to subject me to a similar act of the M….
Take heed! I have been reduced to taking enemas and I made use of one again this morning. Thus to the genius of Florence I have paid the tribute of my virginity a word that does not seem to me good Tuscan and I would be amazed if it were so.
Straight after Easter I will prepare myself to return to my most longed-for mistress, the city of Rome, 51 where I yearn for your news. I sent a letter in this post to your good brother in Dresden, asking him to assert his authority to prevent a dirty trick being hatched against me by the bookseller to the King, as I have reason to believe. Yet having held off from explaining myself in more detail until the next post, I am eager to know what your good brother has planned about his departure, so that I can be sure that the letter that I am going to send him, franked for travel to Bayreuth, will reach him.
My work Women looking sex Winkelman reaching its completion, 52 awaiting its second revision to be done in Rome with the whole collection of engravings already sent in advance. Printed it will be a large octavo volume. The dedication is to his Eminence Aless. Albani, at my suggestion. I will leave for my most longed-for mistress, the city of Rome, straight after Easter, anxious to again enjoy the air pregnant with antiquity and to return to the Women looking sex Winkelman 53 of literature.
I hope to rest at his Em. I feel a great discomfort in my stomach and bowels, so much so that I have been reduced to a rigorous abstinence from food and to taking enemas for the first time in my life; I am eating what is compatible with my stomach.
A brief sojourn in Ostia in the company of his Eminence Spinelli explains in part the reason for my delay in responding to you, that is, two posts later than I should have done, but your letter also matured en route. First and foremost, thank you for the interest that you showed for my health and for remembering me to His Royal Highness, upon whom, as upon you, may God bestow all his heavenly blessings for many years to come.
In these well wishes I am in accord with his Eminence my master, who fondly sends his regards, as does the venerable House of Cheroffini and the beautiful Vittoria, upon whom I do not look with such an indifferent eye as you imagine, but I am unable to limit my feelings of approbation to the beauty of the opposite sex alone. If the great master of the Vatican Apollo had shared your genius, inclined as it is to the feminine, 55 he Women looking sex Winkelman have poured his energies into sculpting a Venus; his imagination would not have been ignited by those sublime forms of a more perfect nature and we would now lack that marvel.
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